AIRSHIP OPERATIONS INC
The Most Technically
Airships in Production Today
Industries, Inc. and its sister company, Airship Operations, Inc.
own and operate airships -- or blimps, as they are commonly called --
for commercial advertising, military and government applications
throughout the world. The company operates the most technically
advanced airships in production today -- the Skyship Series, which are
certified by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) for day and
night passenger flight. Additional worldwide certifications have been
awarded from the CAA (England), JCAB (Japan), KCAB (Korea) and the CAA
On December 12, 1996 Aviation Support Group, Ltd, the parent company of Airship Operations, Inc. purchased Westinghouse Airships, Inc. and Westinghouse Surveillance Systems, Ltd. from Westinghouse Electric Corporation. These companies were renamed Global Skyship Industries, Inc. and Global Skyship Industries, Ltd. Today Global Skyship Industries is the Type Certificate holder and manufacturer of the largest, most technologically advanced airships in the world.
Airship Operations, Inc. builds, operates, trains and supports Skyships and crews for clients worldwide.
A healthy diet is balanced by the different immediate principles and by the intake of adequate amounts to the age, weight and activities of people: quality and quantity will be the objectives.
Deviations, either by excess (overfeeding) or by default (insufficient feeding) can have unfavorable repercussions on flight. And, in turn, the flight activity usually interrupts or modifies the pilot’s basic habits (sleep, food and drink) and should plan food to suit the demands of aerial work.
WHAT “AMOUNT” OF CALORIES SHOULD BE INGESTED DAILY?
The amount of energy that nutrients provide is measurable. The basic unit is the calorie (unit of measurement of quantity of heat required to spend 1 gram of water from 14.5 ° to 15.5 °). In fact when we speak of “calories” in colloquial language, we refer to “Calories” (in capital letters) or kilocalories (a thousand times greater unit).
Energy needs will depend on spending on basal conditions plus energy expenditure. Basal expenditure or metabolism refers to the minimum consumption needed to sustain life. For a young adult comes to be about 1,500 Kcal / day. The energy expenditure is mainly determined by physical exercise. Flight crew in general can be considered to perform moderate physical activity (175 Kcal / hour) and therefore daily requirements will vary between 2,200-3,000 Kcal / day depending on sex, weight and type of flight. A simple formula to calculate your needs is to multiply the weight by 35 and you will get an approximate value.
HOW DO YOU VALUE THE “QUALITY” OF WHAT YOU EAT?
Already known quantity requirements, the crew must know that this energy obtained from the immediate principles of food: carbohydrates or carbohydrates, lipids or fats and proteins , plus diet include vitamins and minerals . The percentage of them comes to be: 60% carbohydrates carbon, 25% fat, 15% protein. Adequate nutrition will give preference to carbohydrates of slow absorption against simple sugars, vegetable fats against animals and high-energy proteins.
Overall, the Spanish rider has it easy, must only follow tradition and based on the Mediterranean diet that includes foods from the seven main groups : milk and dairy products; Meats, fish and eggs; Legumes and nuts; Vegetables and vegetables; fruits; Cereals and sugar and oils.
PECULIARITIES OF DIET AND FLIGHT
It is clear that the flight activity will influence the pilot’s feeding. Flying a commercial plane is not the same as a fighter bomber or an acrobatic aircraft. We know that the practice of not eating or doing irregularly for long periods contributes to fatigue, human error and therefore can become a factor affecting air safety. Insufficient pre-flight feeding can lead to mild hypoglycemia (blood sugar lowering) that can lead to disruptions that compromise the crew’s activities.
May be recommended generically to all drivers: The diet rich in carbohydrates, which provides glucose necessary for the proper functioning of the central nervous system , not fly on an empty stomach, eat easily digestible foods and avoid forming gas, And avoid flying after copious meals.
Drinking water should be “generous” especially if you sweat a lot (in this case, do not forget to add salt), and do not abuse stimulating drinks (coffee and tea). Alcohol is not a food and should not be mixed with flight.
Overfeeding should be avoided before and during the flight especially to prevent drowsiness and gas formation. In the long term, it should be avoided since obesity is a risk factor for multiple diseases,
It is recommended that all crew consume a balanced meal between 1 and 2 hours before takeoff. According to the schedule: if the flight is in the morning it may be a breakfast and if it is in the afternoon or evening a meal based on carbohydrates. Foods that cause flatulence, as well as foods with a lot of fat that are digested with greater difficulty should be avoided. You should consume enough water to be well hydrated.
FEEDING DURING FLIGHT
The food in flight usually is compromised by the limitation of space, the general equipment and the exigencies of the flight. As a general rule, all aircraft operating long-haul flights must provide the necessary equipment to be able to offer hot food to the crew every 6 hours. Likewise it is recommended a provision of liquid of 1.5 liters of water per person and 16 hours of flight. The acceptability of food is different from ground and an additional problem is usually the monotony of the diet on repeated flights. Liquids are very important and should be available at any time. The most accepted are fresh water, coffee, tea and fruit juices.
The food of the personnel returning from a flight has as main function to balance the nutritional deficiencies that could have occurred in the prolonged or especially intense flights. Good nutrition is the responsibility of the crew member himself, he must understand and recognize the value of good food as a factor of general well-being and development of one’s own health in the medium and long term.
|Effects of flight on food|
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Often present in international operations, freight forwarders, who are charged with negotiating with carriers and organizing transport, often have a very specific method of billing.
This term (forwarder) is first and foremost a generic name that groups together a number of activities.From a purely legal point of view, there are both agents (customs agents, port freight forwarders or airport operators) and commission agents (group consignor, road charterer, authorized economic operator).
Finally, freight forwarders specialize according to the mode of transport, the geographical area, the goods, the type of operations …
There are two types of invoices that can be issued by freight forwarders: import and export.
Accounting for the freight forwarder’s invoice: the different accounts to be used
To properly account for the invoice of a freight forwarder, one must first understand it and understand certain specificities of their operations. Once the different lines have been understood, the accounts to be used are always the same.
Expense accounts are used for items at the expense of the company such as customs duties, fees or remuneration of freight forwarder and freight charges.
The schedule of entries thus becomes the following (subject to not incorporating the costs into the purchasing accounts concerned):
|60xxx||For customs duties|
|6224xx||Remuneration of freight forwarder|
|445660||VAT on goods, customs duties and freight forwarding charges (with option for debits, 445860 otherwise)|
As far as customs duties are concerned, they will be incorporated into the purchasing costs of the raw materials or goods, whenever the allocation is possible. In the case of goods, customs duties must be entered in account 607000, which corresponds to the goods purchased or in a sub-account (example: 607110 customs duties on type A goods). The use of an account 608xxx “accessory purchase costs” is also possible.
Account 635xxx dedicated to customs duties will only be used if customs duties can not be charged to the purchase cost. Visit Online bookkeeper gold coast for more information.
Understanding the invoice of a freight forwarder to import: the different lines lines – customs duties, VAT and freight charges …
When importing, the freight forwarder’s bill is often accompanied by:
- The invoice of the foreign supplier;
- The Single Administrative Document (SAD) or Customs Document;
- Transport documents (international consignment note (road), CIM (rail) consignment note, air waybill or sea bill of lading).
It usually comprises two columns depending on whether or not the transactions are subject to VAT in France.
The following table is based on the regulatory framework for invoicing proposed by the Federation of Transport and Logistics Companies of France (TLF). The following table is just one example. Not all of these lines are always present on all invoices.
The customs agent usually makes advance payments of duties and taxes for imported goods, hence the presence of VAT and customs duties.
Intervention fees are fees, freely negotiated between the commission agent and his client.
The collection credit is a guarantee given by a bank or an insurance company to the commission agent, which entails a financial charge which the latter then passes on to each importer.
The advance of funds is the remuneration of the commission agent who advances the duties and taxes for his importing customer. It represents 1% of duties and taxes per month.
The insurance and management line is filled in when the freight forwarder assumes the insurance of the risks of transport and the rebacture to his customer with a management fee in addition.
The last part of the invoice makes it possible to total the taxable and non-taxable amounts and to indicate the VAT invoiced in addition by the freight forwarder.
Invoicing a freight forwarder is easier than importing
Because export clearance is much simpler than importing, these bills are much simpler than the previous ones.
Only the customs agent’s expense lines and the freight forwarder’s costs (including freight costs) generally remain.
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Since August 9th 1999
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© Copyright 1999 by Airship Operations Inc. All rights reserved. Email the WEBMASTER